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This episode goes into Kolie's philosophy on programming and structuring over/under workouts. Duration of overs and unders, intensity guidelines, additional manipulation like cadence, how to progress them, and suggestions for disciplines like CX, MTB, crits, and track. We also discuss some alternative workouts to achieve some of the same touted benefits of over/unders such as better buffering capacity, and your listener questions.
The host of benefits associated with over-under workouts include improved lactate oxidation and clearance capacity, great expression of MCT enzymes, as well as improved tolerance of associated metabolic byproducts over threshold. We look at the established mechanisms behind these phenomena and find that over-unders, as well as lactate presence and oxidation itself, probably don't have a unique adaptation unavailable to other types of training. The follow-up episode, Ten Minute Tips #27, will discuss how Kolie views and programs over-under workouts, as well as alternative workouts to achieve the same ultimate effects.
Running intensity and lactate clearance rate study
Association of MCT1 and CS activity study (figure 4, below)
Paper on training volume and mitochondrial mass (CS activity vs volume, below)
Lactate oxidation in trained vs untrained men (Berkeley cyclists)
Tabata study on anaerobic capacity
Perspectives #23: Weight Loss Diets for Endurance Performance, with Namrita Brooke
This is an in-depth discussion on weight loss diets for endurance athletes, with Dr. Namrita Brooke. The conversation includes guidelines on finding the right starting point and how to adjust energy intake, avoiding crash diets, performance expectations and markers when dieting, the effect of off-bike activity, and reasonable loss rates. We also discuss energy balance vs hormones, demonizing food groups and the role of each macronutrient, the best times of year to lose weight, and your listener questions on diet aids, recomp diets, calorie estimates from wearables, finding a good performance dietitian, and more.
Inside Sports Nutrition Instagram
This episode is a coaching perspective on the upsides and downsides of when you just want to "set it and forget it." We cover pacing adjustments, mental state, fatigue and threshold feedback, and putting the "max" in VO2max intervals. Plus a couple scenarios where erg mode is an excellent tool.
Gem Arnold blog post on hard start vo2max intervals
Perspectives #22: The Cognitive Dissonance Of Silver Bullet Training, with Patrick Smith
Dr. Patrick Smith and Kolie sit down to discuss the athletic and coaching implications of Karl Friston's free energy principle of the brain, the right approach to bridge the gap between expectations and observable reality in training, and the right amount of sensitivity to this feedback. This dovetails with the appeal of quick fixes, miracle intervals, and silver bullet training principles. We also discuss what practical solutions are, setting yourself up for success, and your listener questions.
Patrick's website and contact
Karl Friston's Free Energy Principle of The Brain
Breakdown on the free energy principle
The importance of stupidity in scientific research
This episode investigates the scientific relationship between size and power (allometry), both vo2max and maximal strength and power, and what it can teach us about sound training methods. How do w/kg and w/CdA scale? Why can't gaining muscle add aerobic power? Why can FTP seem to drop when dieting? Why do we rebound from crash diets? Why do most Tour de France winners seem to fit a certain size and weight? We answer all these questions and more, plus your listener questions.
Does overtraining cause mitochondria to dysfunction? We look at data in the Flockhart study on excessive training and compare them to the headlines, a similar overtraining study using proteomics, and a published response to Flockhart. We break down mitochondrial function, what various measurement actually tell us, why your mitochondria are probably just fine, and why these studies raise more questions about mitochondria's role in overtraining (if any) than they answer. Finally, we answer your listener questions on the Flockhart study, mitochondrial function, and overtraining.
Flockhart overtraining study (open text)
Granata overtraining study (open text)
Hawley and Bishop response
Jeukendrup summary of Flockhart study
Kolie sits down with Cory Lockwood to discuss breaking the U.S. 40km ITT record, going under 45 minutes. Cory also talks about what's different working with Kolie from previous training he's done, along with observations about rest, FTP and VO2max training, training during race season, and reflections on what it means to be both an athlete and coach.
USA Cycling National Records
This episode answers the question: is there something unique about endurance riding that is unavailable at other intensities? After discussing "zone 2" definitions, we look at adaptations and dose relative to other training intensities, fatigue, and volume. We look at the relative necessity of endurance riding in both very low and high volume training, and answer listener questions, including if there's a lower limit for endurance pace.
Perspectives #20: The Reality of Data In Training and Coaching, with Tim Cusick
Master coach and WKO5 product leader Tim Cusick joins the podcast to get his brain thoroughly picked. Training topics include the biggest differences between average cyclists and the top pros, the usual periodization schemes vs Olympic cycles, the evolutionary process of a training plan, expertise vs mastery, and of course, resting.
Data topics include whether we'll ever get the AI coach in our lifetimes and what it might do when it's here, what WKO5 is and isn't, the secrets of the PD model and mFTP, the PMC, TSS, training impact score, and the value of lab testing.
Tim also answers listener questions about how he prescribes training targets, low cadence training, youth development, and advice to get the most out of a coaching relationship.
Tim Cusick's CV